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What are the factors that affect the color of glass?


What are the factors that affect the color of glass?
The main factors affecting the color of glass are: electron layer structure of ions, polarization of ions, formation of complex, temperature and dispersion

The optical properties of an ion, especially its light absorption and emission, are related to the structure of its electronic layer and the surrounding medium. The properties of the nearest ions, the number of ions (coordination number) and the geometric arrangement (crystal symmetry) of the space are equally important to the color and sensitivity of ions,Some electron transitions become possible. As a result, absorption and emission either move to long wave or to short wave

Electronic layer structure of 01 ion

From the theory of quantum mechanics, it can be proved that the energy of excited state and ground state of ions containing spin parallel ion structure are close, so they can be excited by visible light, so this kind of ions have color. If the electron spins in the ions have been paired, the ions have no color

Polarization of 02 ions

Generally speaking, ions have colors, and their compounds also have colors. However, colorless ions can sometimes form colored compounds due to the polarization between ions. For example, Ag + and I – are colorless, but AGL appears

Yellow is the result of ion polarization. After polarization, the electronic energy level also changes, which makes the energy difference between the excited state and the ground state smaller, so that the absorption of visible light at a certain wavelength becomes colored, and the color of general compounds becomes darker with the increase of ionic polarization

Formation of 03 complex

Generally speaking, the color of the complex ion will increase with the increase of the effect of the ligand on the central colored ion, resulting in the increase of the intensity of the coordination field and the shift of the absorption band to the high energy short wave direction


However, the absorption band moves to the longer wavelength band due to the higher absorption temperature,As a result, the color becomes lighter. For example, CDs stained glass changes from light yellow to orange yellow and finally to orange red with the increase of temperature

05 dispersion

For example, gold particles < 20nm yellow, 20-50nm is red, 50-100nm is purplish red, 100-150nm is blue, and gold particles > 150nm will precipitate

06 summary

Therefore, if you want to produce high-quality colored glass, you must strictly control the above factors that affect the color of glass, so as to produce better colored glass


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